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Original Article - RIP (Research in Progress)

Green approach to the creation of naturally dyed nylon and polyester with antimicrobial properties

Anjali Agrawal (1)*, Deepali Rastogi (2)

1. Department of Textile Design,

National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kolkata

2. Department of Fabric and Apparel Science,

Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi

(*Corresponding author)


​The recent pandemic has increased the interest in discovery of new health and hygiene-related products. The growth of synthetic fabrics like nylon and polyester has been propelled over the last years, because of their excellent strength and resiliency. At the same time, the demand for natural colourants for the dyeing of these fabrics is gradually increasing due to a greater emphasis on a cleaner and greener production process. The dyeing of nylon and polyester with Ratanjot (Arnebia nobilis), a natural dye, is a novel process that has been extensively studied in this article. The dyeing of systhetic fabrics with Ratanjot was conducted without using hazardous metallic mordants. The dyeing performance was investigated in terms of depth of shade and colour fastness. The antimicrobial properties of dyes fabrics were also studied. The findings suggested that dyeing polyester and nylon with Ratanjot dye gives a good depth of shade even without any metallic mordants. At the same time, it is a promising approach to get excellent antimicrobial activity, thus opening up the avenue for green dyeing and medical textiles.


Original Article - RIP (Research in Progress)

RE3Tex – a project to enhance circular economies in the textile and clothing industry

Ida Marie Brieger*, Natalie Fohrer and Markus Muschkiet

Center Textile Logistics, Hochschule Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, 41065 Mönchengladbach, Germany

(*Corresponding author)


  • Purpose - RE3Tex is a project funded by the German Federal Environmental Foundation and realised by the Center Textile Logistics (CTL) in Mönchengladbach, Germany. RE3Tex stands for repair, reuse and recycle and aims at transforming business models in the (outdoor) fashion industry to promote a conscious and sustainable approach to the use of resources in the textile and clothing industry. The project aims at the development of a manual to inform about parameters that influence the potential for a circular textile value chain in garment production and the development of guidelines for a recirculation of outdoor fashion in terms of repair and recycling including a business model and logistics concept.

  • Methodology - The project comprises a collection of data about currently offered repair and recycling services of outdoor garments by retailers.

  • Findings – Current challenges for manufacturers and retailers exist in the collection of the required minimum quantities of used textiles of their own brands which are necessary for good recycling strategies. The development of own take-back systems for used textiles offers the advantages of material knowledge, however the business model must be profitable and accepted by customers.

  • Originality - A specific feature of RE3Tex is the transfer of theoretical concepts into practice by the help of partners from the industry


Original Article - RC (Research Complete)

Using the Lean Six Sigma to Reduce Fit Variation in Denim Jeans Manufacturing

Anuja Anil Khairnar, Lori F. Rothenberg, and Helmut H. Hergeth*

North Carolina State University, Wilson College of Textiles, Raleigh,

NC 27695-8301, USA

(*Corresponding author)


​Fit inconsistency is a major concern for consumers that drives repeat purchases; and with increasing online sales it has become more important than ever. This paper describes how Lean Six Sigma tools help in identifying causes of fit variation in denim jeans manufacturing, and how it can be reduced. It shows how fit variations are verified through measurements and how a detailed process flow chart is created to describe processing steps. This helps in identifying potential sources of fit inconsistencies. Experiments are set up to determine which process steps have the most impact on inconsistencies. The results of the analysis are used to recommend and implement improvements for processing. A significant reduction in fit variation could be achieved.


Original Article - RC (Research Complete)

The Design Aspects of National Soccer Jerseys

Olivia Garcia* and Sandra Tullio-Pow

Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada

(*Corresponding author)


  • Purpose – To investigate what design attributes make up the ultimate national soccer jersey.

  • Methodology – Quantitative study and content analysis of the 32 home jerseys worn at the 2018 World Cup. 

  • Findings – Functional, expressive, and aesthetic attributes make up the ideal soccer jersey in terms of design.

  • Originality – Only study of its kind from a national soccer jersey perspective.

  • Research limitations/implications – The research was completed approximately 1 year after the 2018 World Cup. Only men’s jerseys were observed. Information examined on websites was limited by the computer monitor used (i.e. colour perception).

  • Practical implications – Will benefit advertisers, marketers, and athletic wear designers to achieve ideal soccer jersey design.

Review Article

Sustainability Analysis of Decentralised

Fibre-to-Fibre Scenarios Reflecting the Amended

EU Waste Framework Directive  - A Review

Yola Biermann, Bastian Quattelbaum*, Robert Groten

Hochschule Niederrhein, Fachbereich Textil- und Bekleidungstechnik,

University of Applied Sciences, Postanschrift: Webschulstraße 31,

41065 Mönchengladbach, Germany 

(*Corresponding author)


This review examines whether chemical recycling based on the feedstock of cotton textile waste has the economic and sustainable potential to become established and compete with conventional fibres. In a sustainability analysis based on data of publications review, the resource consumption and potential environmental impacts of three recycling fibre scenarios (the Lyocell, the viscose and the cellulose-carbamate scenario) are quantified and compared with the fibres cotton, viscose and Lyocell. Recycled fibres tend to be more sustainable than conventional viscose, Lyocell and cotton.


Original Article - RC (Research Complete)

Adapting to change - an approach

for conducting garment fit trials online

Claire Evans* and Sonja Andrew

University of Huddersfield, Fashion and Textile Department,

Queensgate, Huddersfield, UK

(*Corresponding author)


  • Purpose - Conducting qualitative research involving garment prototype wearer trials, testing the fit of garments pre-production, has been challenging due to Covid 19 personal contact restrictions. This provided an opportunity to develop an approach to fit that could be conducted remotely online.

  • Methodology - Using an action research approach (Townsend, 2013), methods are explored for directing an experimental study using online approaches to wearer fit trials. Practical and technical solutions for live wearer fit trials using remove methods for the collection of data and management of participants are considered.   

  • Findings - This research presents findings into the development of a sequential set of steps for conducting live wearer fit trials online.   

  • Originality - It establishes a new approach for the development of wearer fit trials restricted by personal contact and travel, whilst expanding opportunities to involve participants from a broader worldwide demographic. 

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