Current Issue


Original Article - RC (Research Complete)

Using the Lean Six Sigma to Reduce Fit Variation in Denim Jeans Manufacturing

Anuja Anil Khairnar, Lori F. Rothenberg, and Helmut H. Hergeth*

North Carolina State University, Wilson College of Textiles, Raleigh,

NC 27695-8301, USA

(*Corresponding author)


​Fit inconsistency is a major concern for consumers that drives repeat purchases; and with increasing online sales it has become more important than ever. This paper describes how Lean Six Sigma tools help in identifying causes of fit variation in denim jeans manufacturing, and how it can be reduced. It shows how fit variations are verified through measurements and how a detailed process flow chart is created to describe processing steps. This helps in identifying potential sources of fit inconsistencies. Experiments are set up to determine which process steps have the most impact on inconsistencies. The results of the analysis are used to recommend and implement improvements for processing. A significant reduction in fit variation could be achieved.


Original Article - RC (Research Complete)

The Design Aspects of National Soccer Jerseys

Olivia Garcia* and Sandra Tullio-Pow

Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada

(*Corresponding author)


  • Purpose – To investigate what design attributes make up the ultimate national soccer jersey.

  • Methodology – Quantitative study and content analysis of the 32 home jerseys worn at the 2018 World Cup. 

  • Findings – Functional, expressive, and aesthetic attributes make up the ideal soccer jersey in terms of design.

  • Originality – Only study of its kind from a national soccer jersey perspective.

  • Research limitations/implications – The research was completed approximately 1 year after the 2018 World Cup. Only men’s jerseys were observed. Information examined on websites was limited by the computer monitor used (i.e. colour perception).

  • Practical implications – Will benefit advertisers, marketers, and athletic wear designers to achieve ideal soccer jersey design.

Review Article

Sustainability Analysis of Decentralised

Fibre-to-Fibre Scenarios Reflecting the Amended

EU Waste Framework Directive  - A Review

Yola Biermann, Bastian Quattelbaum*, Robert Groten

Hochschule Niederrhein, Fachbereich Textil- und Bekleidungstechnik,

University of Applied Sciences, Postanschrift: Webschulstraße 31,

41065 Mönchengladbach, Germany 

(*Corresponding author)


This review examines whether chemical recycling based on the feedstock of cotton textile waste has the economic and sustainable potential to become established and compete with conventional fibres. In a sustainability analysis based on data of publications review, the resource consumption and potential environmental impacts of three recycling fibre scenarios (the Lyocell, the viscose and the cellulose-carbamate scenario) are quantified and compared with the fibres cotton, viscose and Lyocell. Recycled fibres tend to be more sustainable than conventional viscose, Lyocell and cotton.


Original Article - RC (Research Complete)

Adapting to change - an approach

for conducting garment fit trials online

Claire Evans* and Sonja Andrew

University of Huddersfield, Fashion and Textile Department,

Queensgate, Huddersfield, UK

(*Corresponding author)


  • Purpose - Conducting qualitative research involving garment prototype wearer trials, testing the fit of garments pre-production, has been challenging due to Covid 19 personal contact restrictions. This provided an opportunity to develop an approach to fit that could be conducted remotely online.

  • Methodology - Using an action research approach (Townsend, 2013), methods are explored for directing an experimental study using online approaches to wearer fit trials. Practical and technical solutions for live wearer fit trials using remove methods for the collection of data and management of participants are considered.   

  • Findings - This research presents findings into the development of a sequential set of steps for conducting live wearer fit trials online.   

  • Originality - It establishes a new approach for the development of wearer fit trials restricted by personal contact and travel, whilst expanding opportunities to involve participants from a broader worldwide demographic.